by Gennadi Petrov.
In the middle 1930- X it is annual in the Soviet Union they approached the creation of powerful navy, which provided for the building of battleships, aircraft carriers and ships of other classes. This stimulated the appearance of the fundamentally new, uncommon technical and tactical solutions. In particular, was proposed the idea to create the apparatus, which combines the properties of submarine and aircraft.
In 1934 the cadet OF VMIU im. Dzerzhinskiy Of b.P.Ushakov presented the schematic design of the flying submarine (LPL), which was subsequently pererabotan and it was represented in several versions for determining of stability and loads on the elements of the construction of apparatus.
During April 1936 in the opinion of the captain of 1 ranks Surina was indicated that Ushakov's idea was interesting and deserves unconditional realization. Through several months, during July, polueskiznyy project LPL was examined in the scientific research military committee (NIVK) and obtained in the positive integer opinion, which contained three additional items, one of which said: "... the development of design it is desirable to continue in order to reveal the reality of its realization by carrying out of the corresponding calculations and necessary laboratory tests..." Among those signed document there were the chief Of nIVKa of voyeninzhener of 1 ranks Of grigaytis and the chief of the department of the tactics of military equipment the flag officer of 2 ranks the professor of potters.
In 1937 the theme was included in the plan of division "into" NIVKa, but after his revision, which was very characteristic for that time, they refused from it. Entire further development was conducted by engineer of division "in" by the military technician of 1 ranks B.P, by Ushakov in the off-duty time.
On 10 January, 1938, in 2- m the division Of nIVKa did take place the examination of sketches and basic tactical-technical elements LPL, prepared by the author, however, that was the project? The flying submarine was intended for the destruction of the ships of enemy in the open sea and in the water area of the sea bases, protected by minefields and checks. Small underwater speed and limited action radius under water LPL were not obstacle, since in the absence of purposes in the assigned square (region of action) boat could itself find enemy. After determining from air its course, it sat down itself beyond the horizon, which excluded the possibility of its premature detection, and it were immersed on the track of ship. Before the appearance of a purpose at the point of volley LPL it remained at the depth in the stabilized position, without expending energy by excess motions.
In the case of that permitted otklo of neniya of enemy from the course line LPL it went to the rapprochement with it, and with the very large deviation of target boat passed it beyond the horizon, then it floated, it took off and again it were prepared for the attack.
The possible repetition of approach to target was considered as one of the essential advantages of the underwater- air torpedo bomber over traditional submarines. Especially effective it had to be the action of the flying submarines in the group, since theoretically three such apparatuses created on the way of enemy the impervious barrier by width to nine miles. LPL could penetrate at night the harbor and the ports of enemy, be immersed, and in the daytime conduct observation, direction-finding of secret fairways and with the opportunity attack. In the construction LPL were provided for six autonomous sections, in three of which were placed the aircraft engines AM-34 a with power of 1000 hp each each. They were supplied with the superchargers, which allowed boosting in the takeoff conditions to 1200 hp the fourth section was habitable, calculated for the command of three people. Control of vessel under water was conducted from it. In the fifth section was located storage battery, in the sixth - rowing electromotor by power 10 l,s. Durable housing LPL was cylindrical riveted construction with the diameter of 1,4 m from duralumin with a thickness of 6 mm. besides the durable sections, boat had wet type pilot's light cab, which with the sinking was filled up with water, in this case flying instruments battened down in the special mine.
Skin it is wing and the tail assembly it was intended to carry out made of steel, and floats from duralumin. Etielementy of construction not were calculated for the increased external pressure, since with the sinking they were heated by the sea water, which entered by drift through the scuppers (openings for the drain of water). Fuel- (gasoline) and oil were stored in the special rubber reservoirs, which were being located in the center section. With the sinking that moving and that discharges the mains of the water cooling system of aircraft engines overlapped, which excluded their damage under the effect of pressure of outboard water. The painting and varnishing of its skin was provided for for the protection of housing from the corrosion. Torpedoes were placed under the outer planes of wing on the special holders. The design payload of boat composed 44,5% of the total gross weight of apparatus, which was common for heavy type machines.
The process of sinking included four stages: the sealing down of motor sections, the overlapping of water in the radiators, the transfer of control into the underwater and transfer of crew from the cab into the crew quarters (central control).
Tactical flight characteristics LPL.
Crew, man. 3
Takeoff mass, kg 15 000
Flight speed, UZ (km/h) 100 (~200)
Flying range, km 800
Ceiling, m 2 500
Quantity and the type of aircraft engines 3xAM-34
Power on takeoff conditions, hp 3x1200
Max. of add. agitation with vzlete/posadke and sinking, marks 4-5
Underwater SK -t6, knots 2-3
Submersion depth, m 45
Action radius under water, miles 5-6
Underwater independence, h 48
Power of rowing motor, hp 10
Duration of sinking, min 1,5
Duration of emersion, min 1,8
- 18- in torpedo, pieces. 2
- coaxial machine gun, pieces. 2